Vroom’s Expectancy Theory, sometimes also only the Expectancy Theory is one of the theories dealing with the motivation of people. American professor Victor Vroom published his Expectancy Theory in 1968. It is based on the fact, that human motivation affects his internal expectations in three elements:
- Valence - belief in the attractiveness of the goal
- Instrumentality - belief in the availability of reward
- Expectancy - belief in the feasibility of achieving the objective
This means that a worker must not only inwardly believe in the objective itself, the ability to achieve it, but also the fact that achieving brings expected reward.
Use of the Expectancy Theory in practice: Vroom’s Expectancy Theory is broader and doesn’t concern only the organizational management, but in general behavior and motivation of people. It is based on the recognition that each person adjusts the work effort according to his/her subjective beliefs about the availability and attractiveness of the objective, therefore, how he/she answers the following questions:
- Is the objective attractive for me?
- Is it likely that I fulfil the task?
- Is it likely that I get for accomplished task a reward that matches my expectations?
The manager should therefore remember all mentioned factors of motivation.