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Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z New
Subsidiary is a company controlled and owned or partially owned by another company which is called as a holding
Information security is a collective name for a comprehensive approach to information protection and information and communication technologies. The objective of information security is in particular, protection of information and data from negative events.
Soft factors of the organization's management are those elements that exist due to the presence of people in the organization.
Sender is the communication party that is the source of communication and that sends the message to the other party. This is called the receiver.
Service Science, Management, and Engineering (SSME) is a use of multidisciplinary science, management and engineering disciplines with a focus on services.
A subsidy is a form of financial aid (grants) provided on an exact definition of the activity.
Social interaction is the term of social psychology and sociology. It can take a form of verbal or nonverbal communication. It is any form of interaction between poeple. The interaction usually produces a reaction.
Service in IT concept means provided technical means - software logic or functionality that has intelligible value, utility and output for the customer (user).
Software is a term that refers to the information and communication technologies software, i.e. in the broad meaning includes computer programs and data, such as everything that is not a hardware. Software originates by using a programming language.
Social group is a term that refers to the group consisting of a number of people, at least two or more. It must be internally and functionally inteconnected whole.
Social position is on of the basic terms of social psychology. It is a position in a social system, respectively in its structure. The specific position entails a specifi set of rights and duties. The social position always includes social role and social status.
Social role is one of the basic terms of the social psychology. It is defined as the behavior expected from the holder of a given social position, by others and as a set of duties associated with the position.
System is a set of elements that interact with each other and also affect the behavior of the system. The system can be subdivided into subsystems, but if the system is decomposed to individual elements, it ceases to be a system.
Solvency is an economic term that refers to the enterprise's ability to pay in time, in the required amount and on the required place, all obligations. There is distinguished short-term and long-term solvency.
Sales is a term that indicates the amount of money recieved by selling products, goods and services in the accounting period (month, year).
Self-Financing Ratio is a term that indicates the enterprise's abaility to finance planned investments from its own resources.
Staff & Line organizational structure is one of the types of the formal organizational structure.
Sustainable Growth Rate (g) is a term that refers to the enterprise growth rate in which it is no need to provide additional external resources for financing, since it is financed wholly from own resources and reinvested earnings.
SWIFT code is internationally recognized code unique for each bank. It is technically called as BIC.
Sweat Equity is a term for contribution into a company, startup startup or into a increasing the value of property in the form of an idea or work done.
Sales cycle is the time period from the first contact with the prospective customer to the acquisition. It can last from hours to months or even years.
SPI model is an acronym of the first letters of three most famous models of providing services in IT. It is Software as a Service, Platform as a Service and Infrastructure as a Service.
Shareholder is a partner of the joint stock company. The size of his share is expressed by the number and nominal value of held shares to the total number of shares of the company.
Single Sign-On (SSO) allows you to use one login to access multiple applications simultaneously. The user can use a single login and is regarded as trustworthy by other applications.
Software bug is a coding error in the program, which should be discarded.
SLA is a formalized service description, which the supplier provides to the customer. SLA defines the scope, level and quality of the service.
Sensitive personal data is any personal data whose leakage, unauthorized use or abuse may injure a particular person (data subject). The injury may be of a financial, material or psychological nature.
Security Incident is a term designating any unusual or unpleasant security event that leads to distortion of rules of security in the organization.
Sanguine type is optimistic, active and social man. He likes the limelight.
Shared values ​​is a term used to describe such values of the organization that are promoted and supported by management and that are accepted most of the employees.
Service expenses are such expenses incurred for the purchase of services (such as IT services, bookkeeping, maintenance)
Skimming is a term for an attack on the ATM aimed at undue read the information listed on the payment card using a special device.
Success gap is what is missing to success. For example, to the success of the product at the customers or to the success of making some changes within the company.
Slideware is an informal designation for a product that does not exist yet and is introduced in a presentation only (on slides).
Staff selection is a term that refers to one of the personnel activities. The purpose of the selection is to choose for the position (job) and for the organization (co-workers, organizational culture, etc.) probably the most suitable candidate.
Service catalog is a description of the portfolio (offer) of provider's services, including features, quality, other conditions of delivery and prices of individual services.
Sponsorship is a way individuals or organizations (sponsors) support other individuals or organization. They give a sum of money or material means and it gets in return, usually promotion.
Share premium is the difference between the nominal value of the shares and their market price.
Secured debt is a debt backed or secured by other assets. From a creditor's point of view, such a debt is more secure. Secured debt usually has a lower interest rate than unsecured debt.
Social engineering is a term for manipulating and deceiving people, usually for the purpose of obtaining information or insight into the system. Its aim is to create the impression that the situation is different than it actually is.
Sunk Costs are costs that have already been incurred and can't be in any way affected.
Scarcity is a fundamental concept of economic theory. Economic scarcity is the main characteristic of economic goods that are rare to customers, opposed to free goods.
Supplier is the business relationship's party that delivers goods or services. It can be a business, company or a person.
State regulations affects the behavior of the economy, organizations, firms or individuals, and regulates the behavior through administrative bans, licensing, taxes, setting price caps, minimum prices and alike.
Spam is a term for unsolicited mail sent via e-mail message.
Skill is a term that refers to the ability or complex of skills in the practical activity. Skills are developed based on the learning ability.
Synergy means of joint action with the result greater or better than the sum of their individual effects.
Update is a software update, it means partial improvements or eliminating errors. Compared to the upgrade that si a major improvement or completely new version.
Software upgrade is a major improvement or new version of the software. In contrast the update indicates only minor improvements.
Social intelligence is person's ability to get along with people in general, social technique or ease in society, knowledge of social matters, susceptibility to stimuli from other members of a group, as well as insight into the temporary moods or underlying personality traits of strangers
Swarm intelligence or collective intelligence is intelligence based on the behavior of animals of one species in the swarm (or flock, herd, group) and is higher than the intellignece of individuals inside.
Support processes are all processes whose sole purpose is to ensure the functioning of key processes and overall operations of the company.
Steering Committee is an advisory body composed of senior experts with wide experience, whose opinions are used in strategic management, strategic direction, budget, strategic relationships, and so on. Members of the Steering Committee are not involved in routine corporate management.
SSH (Secure Shell) is secure (encrypted) communication between two computers. SSH will be used if you want to control the computer remotely (for which we have login data) or just transfer files.
Supply is a term of economics theory. It is a summary of the amount goods supplied in the market, where it meets the demand of customers.
The concept of Service Component Architecture (SCA) represents, comparing to other standard technologies, a different view to the term information system or application, especially to their design and implementation. Service Component Architecture (SCA) is based on the principles of a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), which extends in some respects.
Organizational structure based on strategic business units (SBUs) is one of the types of formal organizational structure. They are usually used for large enterprises operating in various fields - such as corporations operating in many markets in many countries.
Service revenue is the total income generated by providing services to customers.
Survey is one of the techniques of data collection during research.
Service Provider is an entity that provides a service to the customer.
Sociogram is a graphic processing of the results of the sociometric survey (sociometry), shows the relationship between the members of the study group and their quality.
Social capital is part of the intellectual capital of the organization. It includes networks of interpersonal relationships (social networks) and communication systems (communication networks) facilitating the exchange and sharing of knowledge and solving problems together in everyday functioning of the organization.
Socialization is a term which refers to the process of integrating individuals into social groups, society, and culture.
The SENSEX BSE (sometimes also the BSE 30 or simply SENSEX, BSE India Sensex Index) is the most significant and the oldest Indian stock index.
Sex is in some organizations one of the favourite promotion methods.
The state is an organizational unit of human society defined territory and its own identity. On its territory, the state creates and applies laws and provides its citizens with public services.
The smart money is such a financial investment by an investor who put finance into the business together with know-how, knowledge, experience or business contacts.
Subsystem is relatively independent part of the system. It is a closed part portion which works somewhat independently and fulfills some functional purpose.
SOM (Serviceable Obtainable Market) is a market that we are able to achieve, serve or gain in terms of its size, competition, trends and other influences.
Strategic cycle according to Veber has four phases: formulation of assumptions, situation analysis, strategy formulation, implementation and monitoring.
SQL (Structured Query Language) is a programming language designed for managing data.
Spatial analysis is a term that refers to a set of special functions of GIS. Through the use of computers and powerful algorithms, based on advanced mathematics and statistics, they allow to answer questions that couldn't be without GIS effectively addressed.
Single Entry Bookkeeping System is a system designed for small businesses and entrepreneurs.
Sales pitch is an term for business presentation, a clear and concise business argumentation of a product or service offered to the customer.
Statutory body is a term that refers to the person or persons who are authorized to act on behalf of the legal person and on its behalf to undertake legal obligations.
SAM (Served Available Market or Serviceable addressable market) is a market share that can be fulfilled or served by all businesses that offer a particular solution, product, or service.
The term Sole Proprietorship is the term for a natural person, who runs a business, has income from an entrepreneurship or any other independently profitable activity.
Secure communication is a communication between two parties that is protected against interference or wiretapping of any third party.
Supply chain is a chain or a system made of all the processes that are going on between businesses involved at any point between the raw material extraction and the moment when the product reaches the final customer.
Organization's surroundings is an environment formed by surrounding society, economy, environment, culture, technological environment, legislation, public sector and public administration. Part of the surroundings are stakeholders and competitive organizations or enterprises.
Service is a work output or provided resources of provider which have a value for a customer. Services are products, i.e. the outputs of the production process, similarly goods. Services cannot be stored and cannot spoil.
Stakeholders are individuals, groups or other organizations somehow tied with an organization. Usually include consumers, employees, management, owners, suppliers and public sector.
Sales Tax a consumption tax on the sale of goods and services in the United States is similar to VAT in Europe.
SERP (Search Engine Result Page) is a term from the field of internet marketing. It is the location of the Website in the results of a specific search engine for a particular searched word or phrase.
Specific objectives are those objectives of the organization that specifies the strategic goals and are measurable, achievable and assigned to accountable persons.
Strategic goals is a term denoting the set of highest goals of the organization or an individual. Strategic goals are used in strategic management.
Selling price is the final price for the customer. This is what the customer pays. Selling price is usually somehow determined by the market (the demand and supply) - how many customers are willing to buy the product.
Security policy is a document that describes, declares and explains how the organization ensures security.
Sourcing Strategy determines how the company will buy, purchase or acquire resources for its operation.
Sub-brand is such a brand that belongs to a brand family - covered by one umbrella brand. Examples of sub-brands are Google Play, Google Docs, Google Maps, etc - all under the umbrella Google brand.
From the point of view of CSR, the social sphere includes corporate philanthropy, corporate volunteering, employee policy, health and safety of employees, support for education and retraining, employment of minority and vulnerable groups of the population, emphasis on gender equality (gender policy), sponsorship, protection and respect for human rights, responsible layoffs, so-called outplacement, commitment to the local community and work-life balance.
Service costs are all costs associated with the purchase of services. Most of these are expenses incurred for the purchase of services (such as IT services, book-keeping, maintenance).
The scammer is a swindler who cheats on other people, forces them to an wrong activities using tricks, deceits, lies, blackmail or false information. Typical deceits done by scammers are a scam, pretexting, phishing or grooming.
Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) is a category of companies specified by the number of employees and revenues.
Seven new challenges of the future manager is a concept introduced in 1954 by the Peter F. Drucker in his book The Practice of Management.
Span of Control is a term that describes the number of subordinate workers / organizational units under a single manager.
Suspect is a term to describe a prospective yet unqualified customer. Suspect is a prospective customer who is aware of the existence of our company or product.
Startup company is a term designating an emerging project or beginning company which is innovative and has a great potential for growth.
Surroundings characteristic means a typical characteristic of surroundings of the organization. It is a charactecteristic of the organization's surrounding environment.
Subscription Economy is a concept describing an economic environment in which companies from a traditional model shift into a business model based on a subscription.
Strategy refers to a long-term plan designed to achieve a specific goal. The strategy is one of the outcomes of strategic management.
Structure is the composition or arrangement of relationships of elements of a system that shows certain patterns or regularities. The structure describes relations between individual elements.
Standard operating procedures (SOP) are detailed instructions and how to perform tasks and actions to achieve the correct and same result.
Strategic cycle consists of basic stages of strategic management. It's an endless circle of alternating phases.
Synnomie is a term that refers to the high cohesion of the society (e.g. organization). Values and norms are respected and followed. Group morale is at a high level, social control mechanisms are functional.
Standard is a formal document that contains some rules, guidelines or definitions by which those concerned apply. Standards are usually internationally valid.
Subordinated debt is a debt that is settled as second or the next in the order accorting to the contract or to the other rules.
Stalking is deliberate and malicious persecution and harassment of another person, which reduces the quality of life and threatens its security.
Share (Shares or Stock) is a term that refers to the type of securities. Share is an equity security, which confirms a capital share in the joint stock company of its holder - a shareholder.
Subscription is a regular payment for a product or service (such as newspapers, software). This applies in advance, typically monthly.
Shortlist is a narrow selection made from a longer list. It may be a shortlist of candidates, products, projects, business cases, requirements, and so on.
SSD (Solid State Drive) is a data storage on a computer. It's kind of hard drive, which has no moving parts and is based on a system of flash memory.
Sales Network is a network of shops or other sales offices. The sales network is geographically distributed to suit the customer's needs and the type of products or services offered. It can be a network of shops, wholesalers, offices and so on.
Seed funding is the financing of the business in its initial stage, when the company does not generate a profit.
Subordination results from a hierarchy, that is, the relationship of subordinate, inferior or less important element to superior or higher.
Scam is a term for fraud - an attempt to obtain money or something else of value and not to exetuce the delivery to the customer.
Schedule is the designation for a timetable, which includes a chronology of the implementation of individual activities as part of a scheduled event, usuall of the project or strategy.
The term synthesis describes a procedure (a thought process) in which individual pieces are assembled to form a whole.
Social communication is a term that refers to the social activity that is a form of the social interaction. Social communication is the way of transmitting information, knowledge, questions, instructions, commands, as well as rumors, gossip, misinformation, hoax, whisper, etc. between the people.
Share issuance is an act of creating new shares to raise capital.
Sharing Economy is the concept of an economic model based on sharing, rental, lease or exchange products between people or companies.
Social status is one of the basic terms of the social psychology. It is a sum of rights that are tied to the social position. In other words, it is a social value of a given place in a given social system (structure).
Syndicated Loan is a term that refers to a long-term credit provided by a group of banks under uniform conditions.
Succession Planning is a process in which a successor is determined for a certain key job position and then it is gradually prepared for it so that the change is as smooth as possible for the company.
Sniffing is an eavesdropping of the communication between computers in the local network.
Spread the price margins between supply and demand price.
Social influence is a term that refers to, according to Eddy Van Avemaet: change in judgement, opinions and attitudes of an individual as a result of meetings with the views of others. Social influence of an indivudal is closely associated with his social position, social role and social status.
Spoofing is a term used in Internet security for identity falsification. Spoofing refers to the falsification of reports (e.g. phishing), falsifying websites (pharming) or falsifying intermediary in the communication between two parties (so-called Man In The Middle).
Status report is sumarizing the state or the situation as of a stated period of time.
Stock Market is a denomination for all exchanges, markets, and entities that trade in or issue stocks.
Symmetry refers to the two-way balanced proportions of something. In science disciplines, it means cohesiveness, that is, the same proportions on both sides of the axis.
Self-confidence (self-reliance) is a component of personality that shapes our inner self. Determines how a person is aware of his own capabilities, abilities, and how it can behave in different situations.
Software as a Service, the abbreviation SaaS is used. It is a way of software operation (usually business applications), in which the customer uses the software in the form of service via the Internet.
Shared folder is such a folder with files on your computer or on any repository into which multiple users can access. At least one of them has the permission to assign or remove other sharing.
SLD (Second Level Domain) is an abbreviation for Internet domains that are registered specific companies or people (such as Google). They must always be classified under the top-level domain (such as .com).
Shelf Company is established for the purpose of selling the future owner, who wants to save time with setting up a comprehensive trading company, or it may be a foreign investor who doesn't want to go through the whole process of establishing.
Stock Valuation is performed to predict the future development of their market value and estimate the future profit from their sale or purchase. There are many different methods for sotck valuation.
Solvency is an economic term that refers to the degree of difficulty of transformation of assets into cash forms or the ability to convert various assets quickly and without major losses on cash.
Social network is a sociological concept for a set of social relations between network elements that interact and that are especially individuals.
Service Level Management (SLM) includes monitoring and service quality management on the basis of defined quality indicators (SLA) that are among basic key performance indicators (KPI) in the organization.
Secured Loan is a loan secured by other assets owned by the debtor. From the creditor's point of view, such a loan is more secure, which is why secured loans usually have a lower interest rate than unsecured loans.
SEO (Search Engine Optimization) is a concept of internet marketing. It refers to a set of rules of search engines that determine the relevance of the website in relation to the searched term.
Salary is a term for a reward provided by the employer to employees for a work.