”Quality is everyone’s responsibility”
William Edwards Deming
This area includes management methods and analytical techniques, whose subject is quality management. Concepts of quality in organizations are based, in principle, either on norms and standards(international, national or corporate) or on the concept of TQM (Total Quality Management). Approaches to quality management also vary among organizations providing services (see service sector) and manufacturing organizations (see manufacturing and industry sector) that produce products. All complex methods and standards of quality management help organizations to set the overall management system to prevent negative phenomena (poor-quality, errors, risks, costs), which are reflected in the outputs of their work. Complex methods are not just about paperwork, how anyone could think of. A common feature is an effort to continuously improve the way how it describes the DMAIC or PDCA improvement cycles.
The perception of the term quality, especially from a customer perspective, is quite different. For services price often does not play such a role as for products. The customer assesses service quality more subjectively than product quality. The customer feels immediately non-quality, because purchase of a low-quality product means for him, of course, a risk of product failure. The result of poorly done service is a risk of default of the subject of this service (e.g. poorly repaired washing machine will probably fail). From the perspective of organizations, quality is equally crucial - the organization can, as a result of poor quality of its products, lose customers or market share. In addition, low quality clearly increases costs. This applies to both, manufacturing organizations and for organizations providing services.
A key positive manifestation of well-established quality management system is increasing customer satisfaction and loyalty.
Quality management as a whole belongs to the competence of Quality Manager.
Management methods and other analytical techniques in quality management are usually focused on improving quality of the final product, reducing errors and on improving overall organization of work.
History of quality management and key milestones are described here.
Quality management methods:
- 5S Method
- APQP (Advanced Product Quality Planning)
- Deming cycle (PDCA)
- EFQM Excellence Model
- Poka yoke
- Quality circles
- Six Sigma
- TQM – Total Quality Management
Analytical techniques used in quality management:
- Control chart
- Development diagram
- DOE (Design of Experiments)
- FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis)
- FTA (Fault Tree Analysis)
- G8D (Global Eight Disciplines)
- Ishikawa diagram – cause-and-effect diagram
- Kano model
- MSA (Measurement System Analysis)
- Pareto principle
- PPAP (Production Part Approval Process)
- QFD (Quality Function Deployment)
- Regression Analysis
- Run chart
- Scatter diagram
- SPC (Statistical process Control)
- WIBI (Would I Buy It?)
Standards and frameworks in a field of quality:
- ISO 9001 Quality management system
- ISO/TS 10004:2010 – Quality management system - system – Customer satisfaction – Guidelines for monitoring and measuring
- ISO 13485 - Medical devices – Quality management systems – Requirements for regulatory purposes
- ISO/TS 16949 – new quality management system for automotive production and relevant service part organizations