“This means methodologically that the importance of a case, and its validity as proof, cannot be evaluated by the frequency of its occurrence. Finally, it means for psychology, as it did for physics, a transition from an abstract classificatory procedure to an essentially concrete constructive method.”
Psychology is a scientific discipline that deals with the human psyche - above all, human thinking (more accurately cognition), experience and behavior. It belongs to the social sciences and humanities and in recent years, it also promotes many aspects of natural history (especially in neuropsychology).
Saul Kassin defines it as: “the scientific study of behavior and mind.”
Rita L. Atkinson defines it as: “scientific study of behavior and mental processes.”
Psychology therefore examines human behavior, its genesis, reasons and determinants (such as motives and attitudes). It examines human thinking, such as memory or decision making and problem solving, whether they are successful or failing. Further, it examines the human experience - emotions, moods, feelings, etc.
The basic aim of psychology is to describe, explain and, if possible, be able to predict human thinking, feelings, actions and behavior. In an organizational environment this aim is further extended to the ability to influence described phenomena in such a way to be desirable for the organization and for achieving its objectives – thus shaping human thinking and experiences to result for the organization the desired behavior and action.
Psychology is divided into theoretical and applied fields. The theoretical fields, which are relevant to management, include general psychology and personality psychology.
The topic of people in organizations is the domain of applied field of work and organizational psychology. One of its key themes is the motivation and motivating of employees. Generally, work and organizational psychology deals with the relationship of the human psyche, work and working conditions and their impact on job performance. Part of work psychology is also an assessment of working assumptions - personality, abilities, skills, intelligence, experience, etc.
Commencement of the psychology establishment is usually considered to be 1879, when German professor Wilhelm Wundt founded the first psychological laboratory in Leipzig.
Psychology is interesting for solving a wide range of topics and it includes a variety of schools and approaches, which appeared in its development, not only sequentially, but also simultaneously side by side. As a result it is often listed among multi-paradigm fields.
Related terms and methods:
- Cognitive Style
- Emotional Intelligence
- FACS (Facial Action Coding System)
- Multiple Intelligence Theory
- Thorndike’s Intelligence Theory
- MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator)
- Human Memory
- Motivation, Motivating & Motivation theories
- Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
- Six Basic Emotions
- Social Communication
- Social Intelligence
- Social Position
- Social Role
- Social Status
- Transactive Memory
Related management field: