Memory is one of the basic psychological concepts. It is one of the basic psychological functions. It means the ability to capture (encoding), keep (storage) and invoke (retrieval) an information.
Usually it is distinguished:
- Sensory memory - keeps the sensory information for a very short time (less than 1 second) - visual information stores iconic memory; auditory information store echoic memory
- Short-term memory - an ability to temporarily (15-30 seconds) hold the information for a period needed for processing - short-term memory capacity is likely to be the magic number 7±2 (G.A. Miller, 1956) - information is stored in chunks, they are logically consistent units of information
- Long-term memory - used for long-term storage of massive amounts of information, divided into:
- Explicit memory - stores facts and concepts (semantic memory) and events (episodic memory)
- Implicit memory - stores primarily automated motor or cognitive skills (procedural memory)
Quality of memory is closely correlated with intelligence, because when measuring intelligence, the memory is an important part of it.
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