Management style / leadership style is a term, which expresses the characteristic manner of execution of managerial work of managers in relation to controlled workers. Probably the most frequent classification of management styles was developed by Rensis Likert (4S Model):
- Exploitative Authoritative style - top-down communication, no feedback, use of fear of punishment, emphasis on the “whip”, manager decides
- Benevolent Authoritative style - top-down communication, little feedback, use of rewards, dominance of the methods of “sugar,” manager decides
- Consultative style - two-way communication, intensive feedback, manager makes a decision after consultation
- Participative style - Free two-way communication, openness in the feedback, group decisions are made
Rensis Likert anticipated a fifth style, where the formal authority is completely disappearing and it is applied only informal authority. A managerial grid also used to evaluate the management style.
Practical use of management style: Each manager uses specific management style /leadership style of his employees, based on his personality, experience, management education, and other circumstances (e.g. nature of the organization, number of workers, education level of workers). Management style of managers in a particular organization may also be influenced by corporate culture and it influences an organizational climate. It is hard to determine which of the leadership styles is most appropriate, because for every type of organization or situation in which the organization is, there is an appropriate different style. For example, in crisis management should be used more authoritarian management styles.