The figure below presents two complex approaches to social communication, which are kind of limited:
- Interactive approach understands communication as “ping-pong”. The ball is now on one side, in next moment on the other side. Everyone is for a while a speaker, and also for a while a listener. They interact, however, the communication is quite orderly.
- Transactional approach sees communication as the exchange (transaction), as a complex game. Both parties are also speakers and listeners. Communication is often set so that both talk “over each other.” New message on one side raises new message and response on the other side. And so over and over the communication content is getting richer and spreads (symbolically indicated by a spiral).
In the real world, there are examples of communication situations that are more or less resemble one or the other model. It is also possible that the communication situation changes and now approaches one model and then the other model.
There are also other complex models of social communication.